- E. Eshel, H. Eshel, Yardeni 1998. DJD 11: 403-425.
This small scroll contains two different liturgical texts. The first is the apocryphal Psalm 154, which is known from Syriac manuscripts as well as from the Great Psalms Scroll (11QPsa). Psalm 154 has been attributed to the prayer of King Hezekiah and the prophet Isaiah during the invasion of Judea by the Assyrian King Sennacherib in 701 BCE. The second is an otherwise unknown prayer for the welfare of “King Jonathan”. ”King Jonathan” has been identified as Alexander Jannaeus of the Hasmonaean dynasty (ruled 103–76 BCE). The prayer, which refers to a “day of battle”, is interpreted by most scholars as a petition to God to protect the king and his kingdom; a minority of scholars view the text as a prayer directed against the king. Some scholars have suggested that the scroll was composed during one of the many wars between Alexander Jannaeus and the neighboring rulers. On two different occasions, Hellenistic kings invaded Judea, putting Jerusalem in jeopardy. The author may have sought to make an analogy between these invasions and the much earlier failed invasion of Sennacherib. Indeed, despite being defeated in battle more than once, Alexander Jannaeus always managed to escape alive, and all invasions of Judea during his reign were eventually aborted. This scroll is exceptional among the Dead Sea Scrolls, since their authors were on the most part anti-Hasmonaean and portray the Hasmonaean kings negatively.
Plate 490: Additional fragments from this plate, from 4Q445, 4Q447, 4Q448, can no longer be located.