- Skehan, Ulrich, Sanderson 1992. DJD 9: 53-130.
This manuscript of Exodus has several unique features. The most obvious is its paleo-Hebrew script, the Hebrew script of the First Temple period. Several other biblical scrolls found in the Qumran caves were also written in this script. Also, the version of this manuscript does not match the Hebrew Masoretic Text of the Bible or any other known version of Exodus. It includes some expansions, which are found neither in the Hebrew Masoretic Text nor in the LXX (Septuagint; the Greek translation of biblical texts). Some of these expansions seek to harmonize between the texts of Exodus and Deuteronomy. A similar penchant for harmonization is found in the Samaritan version of the Pentateuch. Although other textual features of this manuscript match those found in the Samaritan Pentateuch, there are also significant differences. For example, the Samaritan Pentateuch emphasizes the command to build an altar on Mount Gerizim, and includes it among the Ten Commandments, an expansion which is absent in the 4QpaleoExodm version. This has led scholars to conclude that the Samaritan Pentateuch was based on an earlier text, which was used also by Jews during the Second Temple Period. At a later phase, the Samaritans adopted this version and made a few small changes that legitimized the special status of Mount Gerizim. The textual version of 4QpaleoExodm has therefore been labeled "proto-Samaritan".